Growing Literacy of Resistance in “the Curriculum Garden” of Resistance Language and Literature

Document Type: Research article

Authors

1 Ph.D candidate of TEFL, Alzahra University

2 Alzahra University

3 Azad University, Dezful branch

Abstract

Recognizing the cultural political dimensions of  ELT curriculum and instructional materials and the necessity for their contextualization, this qualitative study explores how codes and themes of Language and Literature of Resistance presented in learning by design pedagogy and framed in trilogy of mujaawarah (group gathering), yuhsen (the best possible), and muthanna (quality pair) elaborated by Fasheh (2015), may pave the way for joining foreign language learning and Iranian Islamic Revolution’s pedagogy, pedagogy of resistance, in ELT curriculum development and implementation besides provoking literacy. The findings in this study demonstrated that the ELT curriculum, as marinated in the language and thought of resistance, can bring meaning and life to the act of language learning by providing Iranian language learners with literacy of resistance which invites emancipation from indifference and routine life. This type of literacy, which esteems individual reflections and meaning making, inspires learners to pursue the improvement and transcendence within themselves and their milieu by growing their insight and engagement (commitment to their being).

Keywords


Abedinia, A., & Izadnia, M. (2013). Critical pedagogy in ELT classroom: Exploring contributions of critical literacy to learners’ critical consciousness. Critical Inquiry in Language Studies, 22(4), 338-352.

Amiri Khorasani, A., & Hedayati, F. (2014). Resistance literature: Definitions and limitations. Journal of Resistance Literature, 6(10), 23-41.

Avini, M.(2004). The development and principles of the West civilization. Tehran, Iran: Saqi publication.

Baqeri, K. (2006). Another perspective on Islamic pedagogy. Tehran, Iran: Madreseh Publication.

Berns, M. S. (1985). Functional approaches and communicative competence: English language teaching in non-native contexts. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Illinois – Illnois.

Byram, M. (2012). The Eric Hawkins lecture: Language awareness and critical (cultural) awareness-relationships, comparisons, and contrasts. Language Awareness, 21(1-2), 5-13.

Cohen, L., Manion, L.,&Morrison, K. (2000). Research methods in education. London, UK: Routledge.

Cope, B., & Kalantzis, M. (2009). Multiliteracies: New literacies, new learning. Pedagogy: An International Journal, 4(3), 164-195.

Cunningsworth, A. (1995). Choosing your coursebook. Oxford, UK: Heinemann.

Edwards, A. (2005). Relational agency: learning to be a resourceful practitioner. International Journal of Educational Research, 43, 168-182.

Egan, K. (2003). What is curriculum? Journal of the Canadian Association for Curriculum Studies, 1(1), 9-16.

Eisner, E. W. (1994). The educational imagination: On the design and evaluation of school programs. New York: MacMillan College Publishing Company.

Fasheh, M. (1990). Community education: To reclaim and transform what has been made invisible. Harvard Educational Review, 60(1), 19-36.

Fasheh, M. (1995). The reading campaign experience with Palestinian society: Innovative strategies for learning and building communities. Harvard Educational Review, 65(1), 66-93.

Fasheh, M. (2015, June). Over 68 years with mathematics: My story of healing from modern superstitions and reclaiming my sense of being and well-being. Paper presented at the Math Education and Society Conference, Portland State University, Oregan.

Freire, P. (1973). Education for critical consciousness. New York: Seabury.

Freire, P. (2000). Pedagogy of the oppressed. New York: Bloomsbury.

Freire, P., & Macedo, D. (2005). Literacy: Reading the word and the world. London, UK: Routledge.

Fredricks, L. (2007). A rationale for critical pedagogy in EFL: The case of Tajikistan. Reading Matrix, 7(2), 22-28.

Ghahremani Ghajar, S., & Mirhosseini, S.A.(2005). English class or speaking about everything class? Dialogue journal writing as a critical EFL literacy practice in an Iranian high school. Language Culture and Curriculum, 18(3), 286-299.

Ghahremani Ghajar, S., & Mirhosseini, S.A. (2011).Whose knowledge? Whose language? Reeds crying tales of separation. In S. Ghahremani Ghajar& S. A. Mirhosseini (Eds.), Confronting academic knowledge (pp. 87-104). Tehran, Iran: Iran University Press.

Ghahremani Ghajar, S., & Poursaduqi, S. (2017). Hidden imposed war: Dezful surrounded by strange words this time. Journal of Language Research, 8(21). 115- 131.

Giroux, H. A. (1983). Theory and resistance in education: A pedagogy for the opposition. New York: Bergin and Garvey.

Giroux, H.A. (1988). Teachers as intellectuals: Towards a critical pedagogy of learning. Massachusetts: Design and Gravity Publishers.

Giroux, H.A. (2018). Pedagogy and the politics of hope: Theory, culture, and schooling: A critical reader. New York: Routledge.

Harlow, B. (1987). Resistance literature. New York: Methuen.

Hinkel, E. (Ed.). (2005). Culture in second language teaching and learning. Shanghai, China: Shanghai Foreign Language Education Press.

Holliday, A (2011). Intercultural communication and ideology. London, UK: Sage.

Holly, D. (1990). The unspoken curriculum. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Huh, S. (2016). Instructional model of critical literacy in an EFL context: Balancing conventional and critical literacy. Critical Inquiry in Language Studies, 13(3), 210-235.

Janks, H. (2000). Domination, access, diversity, and design: A synthesis for critical literacy education. Educational Review, 52(2), 175-186.

Jihad. (2018). In Merriam-Webster’s online dictionary. Retrieved from http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/jihad

Juan, W. (2010). A content analysis of the cultural content in the EFL textbooks. Canadian Social Science, 6(5), 137-144.

Khomeini, R. (1989). Imam’s sahifeh. Tehran, Iran: The Institute of Arrangement and Publication of Imam Khomeini’s Works.

Kilickaya, F. (2004). Guidelines to evaluate cultural contents in textbooks. The Internet TESL Journal, 10(12), 38-48.

Kincheloe, J.L. (2004). Critical pedagogy. New York: Peter Lang Publishing.

Kliebard, H.M. (1975). The rise of scientific curriculum making and its aftermath. Curriculum Theory Network, 5(1), 27-38.

Laidlaw, L. (2005). Reinventing curriculum: A complex perspective on literacy and writing. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.

McLaren, P. (1988). Culture or canon? Critical pedagogy and the politics of literacy. Harvard Educational Review, 53(2), 213-234.

McLaren, P. (2016). Life in schools: An introduction to critical pedagogy in the foundations of education. New York: Routledge.

Milner, H.R. (2010). Culture, curriculum, and identity in education. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

Motahari, S. (1994). Education in Islam. Tehran, Iran: Sadra.

Muhammadi, B. (2017). The conflict of two Islams. Qom, Iran: Ma’ref.

Pennycook, A. (2017). The cultural politics of English as an international language. London, UK: Routledge.

Pinar, W.F. (2004). What is curriculum theory? London, UK: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.

Prodromou, L. (1988). English as cultural action. ELT Journal, 4(2), 73-88.

Ross, A. (2005). Curriculum, construction, and critique. London, UK: Falmer Press.

Sangari, M. (2010). Literature of holy defense. Tehran, Iran: The Foundation of Preservation of Works and Publication of Values Related to Sacred Defense.

Shor, I. (2012). Empowering education: Critical teaching for social change. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.

Tanner, D., & Tanner, L. N. (1995). Curriculum development: Theory into practice. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Merrill.

Torabi, Z. (2009). Introduction to the world resistance literature. Tehran, Iran: The Foundation of Preservation of Works and Publication of Values Related to Sacred Defense.

Wallace, C. (2003). Critical reading in language education. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

Wortham, S. (2003). Curriculum as a resource for the development of social identity. Sociology of Education, 76, 229-247.