Document Type : Research article


1 Associate professor, English department, Imam Khomeini International University

2 MA graduate, Islamic Azad University, Tonekabon Branch


To investigate the predictive power of language learning strategy types on meta-cognitive and motivational self-regulated learning components (task value, control of learning beliefs, and test anxiety), 149 male and female BA level students, majoring in English translation and English language teaching were selected to participate in this study. To collect data, a Michigan Test of English Language Proficiency (MTELP) was given to homogenize the students. In addition, the participants were also asked to answer the Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL) and Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ). Four separate stepwise multiple regression procedures were used to analyze the obtained data. The results showed that cognitive, meta-cognitive and compensation strategies had predictive power for meta-cognitive self-regulated learning. Moreover, meta-cognitive, memory, and affective strategies were predictors of task value. The findings also showed significant relationships between meta-cognitive strategies and control of learning beliefs. In addition, the only negative predictor of test anxiety were communication strategies.


Babbs, P. J., & Moe, A. J. (1983). Metacognition: A key for independent learning from text. The Reading Teacher, 36(4), 422-426.
Bandalos, D. L., Finney, S. J., & Geske, J. A. (2003). A model of statistics performance based on achievement goal theory. Journal of Educational Psychology, 95(3), 604-616.
Bandura, A. (1977). Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change. Psychological Review, 84(2), 191-215.
Battle, A., & Wigfield, A. (2003). College women's value orientations toward family, career, and graduate school. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 62(1), 56-75.
Baumeister, R. F., & Vohs, K. D. (2007). Self-regulation, ego depletion, and motivation. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 1(1), 115-128.
Brown, A. L. (1987). Metacognition, executive control, self-regulation, and other more mysterious mechanism. In F. E. Weinert & R. H. Kluwe (Eds.), Metacognition, motivation, and understanding, (pp. 65-116). Hillsdale, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Bremner, S. (1999). Language learning strategies and language proficiency: Investigating the relationship in Hong Kong. Canadian Modern Language Review, 55(4), 490-514.
Cassady, J. C., & Johnson, R. E. (2002). Cognitive test anxiety and academic performance. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 27(2), 270-295.
Connell, J. P., & Wellborn, J. G. (1991). Competence, autonomy, and relatedness: A motivational analysis of self-system processes. In M. R. Gunnar, & L. A. Sroufe (Eds.), Self-processes and development: The Minnesota symposia on child psychology (pp.43-77). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Corno, L. (1986). The metacognitive control components of self-regulated learning. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 11(4), 333-346.
Dansereau, D. F. (1985). Learning strategy research. In J. W. Segal, S. F. Chipman and R. Glaser (Eds.), Thinking and learning skills: Relating learning to basic research (Vol.1, pp.209-240). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Deffenbacher, J. L. (1980). Worry and emotionality in test anxiety. In I. G. Sarason, (Ed.), Test anxiety: Theory, research, and applications (pp. 111–124). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Duncan, T. G., & McKeachie, W. J. (2005). The making of the motivated strategies for learning questionnaire. Educational Psychologist, 40(2), 117-128.
Eccles, J. S. (1983). Expectancies, values, and academic behaviors. In J. T. Spence (Ed.), Achievement and achievement motives (pp. 75-146). San Francisco: W. H. Freeman.
Eccles J. S. (1987). Gender roles and women's achievement-related decisions. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 11(2),135–172.
Eccles, J. S., Adler, T., & Meece, J. L. (1984). Sex differences in achievement: A test of alternate theories. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 46(1), 26-43.
Eccles, J. S., & Wigfield, A. (2002). Motivational beliefs, values, and goals. Annual Review of Psychology, 53, 109-132.
Everson, H. T., Millsap, R. E., & Rodriguez, C. M. (1991). Isolating gender differences in test anxiety: A confirmatory factor analysis of the Test Anxiety Inventory. Educational and Psychological Meas- urement, 51(1), 243-251.
Green, J. M., & Oxford, R. (1995). Acloser look at learning strategies, L2 proficiency, and gender. TESOL Quarterly, 29 (2), 261-297.
Hembree, R. (1988). Correlates, causes, and treatment of test anxiety. Review of Educational Research, 58(1), 47–77.
Hong, E. (1998). Differential stability of individual differences in state and trait test anxiety. Learning and Individual Differences, 10(1), 51-69.
Hong-Nam, K., & Leavell, A. G. (2006). Language learning strategy use of ESL students in an intensive English learning context. Science Direct, 34, 399-415.
Liebert, R. M., & Morris, L. W. (1967). Cognitive and emotional components of test anxiety: A distinction and some initial data. Psychological Reports, 20(3), 975–978.
Lufi, D., Okasha, S., & Cohen, A. (2004). Test anxiety and its effect on the personality of students with learning disabilities. Learning Disability Quarterly, 27(3), 176-184.
McKeachie, W. J., Lin, Y., & Middleton, M. J. (2004). Two types of low test-anxious (low worry) students. Counseling & Clinical Psychology Journal, 1(3), 141-152.
McKeachie, W. J., Pintrich, P. R., Lin, Y., & Smith, D. A. F. (1986). Teaching and learning in the college classroom: A review of the research literature. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan, National Center for Research to Improve Postsecondary Teaching and Learning.
McWhaw, K., & Abrami, P.C. (2001). Student goal orientation and interest: Effects on students’ use of self-regulated learning strategies. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 26(3), 311-329.
Morris, L. W., Davis, M. A., & Hutchings, C. H. (1981). Cognitive and emotional components of anxiety: Literature review and a revised worry-emotionality scale. Journal of Educational Psychology, 73(4), 541–555.
Morris, L. W., & Liebert, R. M. (1969). The effects of anxiety on timed and untimed intelligence tests: Another look. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 33(2), 240-244.
Naiman, N., Frőhlich, M., Stern, H. H., & Todesco, A. (1978). The good language learner. Toronto, Canada: Ontario Institute for Studies in Education.
Neuville, S., Frenay, M., & Bourgeois, E. (2007). Task value, self-efficacy and goal orientations: Impact on self-regulated learning, choice and performance among university students. Psychologica Belgica, 47(1), 95-117.
Nicholls, J.G. (1984). Achievement motivation: Conceptions of ability, subjective experience, task choice, and performance. Psychological Review, 91(3), 328-346.
Nolen, S. (1988). Reasons for studying: Motivational orientations and study strategies. Cognition and Instruction, 5 (4) 269–287.
O'Malley, J. M., & Chamot, A. U. (1990). Learning strategies in second language acquisition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Oxford, R. L. (1989). Use of language learning strategies: A synthesis of studies with implication for strategy training. System, 17(2), 235-247.
Oxford, R. L. (1990). Language learning strategies. What every teacher should know. New York: Newbury House.
Oxford, R. L., & Crookall, D. (1989). Research on language learning strategies: methods, findings, and instructional issues. Modern Language Journal, 73(4), 404-419.
Oxford, R. L., & Nyikos, M (1989). Variable affecting choice of language learning strategies by university students. The Modern Language Journal, 73(3), 291-300.
Pajares, F. (1996). Self-efficacy beliefs in academic settings. Review of Educational Research, 66(4), 543–578.
Pajares, F., & Miller, M. (1994). The role of self-efficacy and self-concept beliefs in mathematical problem-solving: A path analysis. Journal of Educational Psychology, 86(2), 193-203.
Pintrich, P. R. (1989). The dynamic interplay of student motivation and cognition in the college classroom. In C. Ames, & M. L. Maehr (Eds.). Advances in Motivation and Achievement: Motivation-enhancing Environments (pp.117- 160). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.
Pintrich, P. R. (1999). The role of motivation in promoting and sustaining self-regulated learning. International Journal of Educational Research, 31 (6), 459-470.
Pintrich, P. R. (2000a). Multiple goals, multiple pathways: The role of goal orientation in learning and achievement. Journal of Educational Psychology, 92(3), 544–555.
Pintrich, P. R. (2000b). The role of goal orientation in self-regulated learning. In M. Boekaerts, P. R. Pintrich, & M. Zeidner (Eds.), Handbook of self-regulation (pp.
451-502). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
Pintrich, P. R. (2003). A motivational science perspective on the role of student motivation in learning and teaching contexts. Journal of Educational Psychology, 95(4), 667–686.
Pintrich, P. R., & De Groot, E. V. (1990). Motivational and self-regulated learning components of classroom academic performance. Journal of Educational Psychology, 82(1), 33-40.
Pintrich, P. R., McKeachie, W. J., & Lin, Y. G. (1987). Teaching a course in learning to learn. Teaching of Psychology, 14(2), 81–86.
Pintrich, P. R., Smith, D. A. F., Garcia, T., & McKeachie, W. J. (1991). A manual for the use of the motivated strategies for learning questionnaire (MSLQ). Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan, National Center for Research to Improve Postsecondary Teaching and Learning.
Pintrich, P. R., Smith, D. A. F., Garcia, T., & Mckeachie, W. J. (1993). Reliability and predictive validity of the motivated strategies for learning questionnaire (MSLQ). Educational and Psychological Measurement, 53(3), 801-813.
Pressley, M., & Ghatala, E. S. (1990). Self-regulated learning: Monitoring learning from text. Educational Psychologist, 25(1), 19–33.
Pokay, P., & Blumenfeld, P. C. (1990). Predicting achievement early and late in the semester: The role of motivation and use of learning strategies. Journal of Educational Psychology, 82(1), 41-50.
Rotter, J. (1966). Generalized expectancies for internal versus external control of reinforcement. Psychological Monographs: General and Applied, 80(1), 1-28.
Rubin, J. (1981). Study of cognitive processes in second language learning. Applied Linguistics, II (2), 117-131.
Sarason, I. G. (1984). Stress, anxiety, and cognitive interference: Reactions to Tests. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 46(4), 929–938.
Schommer, M. (1994). Synthesizing epistemological belief research: Tentative understandings and provocative confusions. Educational Psychology Review, 6(4), 293–319.
Schraw, G., Crippen, K.J. & Hartley, K. (2006). Promoting self-regulation in science education: Metacognition as part of a broader perspective on learning. Research in Science Education, 36, 111-139.
Schraw, G., & Moshman, D. (1995). Metacognitive theories. Educational Psychology Review, 7(4), 351–371.
Schunk, D. H. (1991). Self-efficacy and academic motivation. Educational Psychologist, 26, 207-231.
Spielberger, C. D., & Vagg, P. R. (1995). Test anxiety: A transactional process model. In C. D. Spielberger & P. R. Vagg (Eds.), Test anxiety: Theory, assessment and treatment (pp. 3-14). Washington, DC: Taylor & Francis.
Sharma, S., & Sud, A. (1990). Examination stress and test anxiety: A cross-cultural perspective. Psychology & Developing Societies, 2(2), 183-201.
Unruh, S. M. & Lowe, P. A. (2010). The development and validation of a Spanish language version of the test anxiety inventory for children and adolescents. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 32(1), 164-183.
Van der Ploeg, H. M. (1984). Worry, emotionality, intelligence, and academic performance in male and female Dutch secondary school children. In: H. M. Van der
Ploeg, R. Schwarzer, & C. D. Spielberger (Eds.), Advances in test anxiety research (pp. 201-210). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Van Zile-Tamsen, C., & Livingston, J. (1999). The differential impact of motivation on the self-regulated strategy use of high- and low-achieving college students. Journal of College Student Development, 40(1), 54-60.
Weinstein, C., & Mayer, R. E. (1986) The teaching of learning strategies. In M. Wittrock (Ed.), Handbook of research on teaching (pp. 315-327). New York: Macmillan.
Wenden, A. (1987). Metacognition: An Expanded view on the cognitive abilities of L2 learners. Language Learning, 37(4), 573-597.
Wigfield, A. (1994). Expectancy-value theory of achievement motivation: A developmental perspective. Educational Psychology Review, 6(1), 49-78.
Wigfield, A., & Eccles, J. S. (2000). Expectancy-value theory of achievement motivation. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 25, 68-81.
Yilmaz, C. (2010). The relationship between language learning strategies, gender, proficiency and self-efficacy beliefs: a study of ELT learners in Turkey. Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences, 2(2), 682-687.
Zarei, A. A. (2014). The effect of reading anxiety and motivation on EFL learners' choice of reading strategies. Journal of Applied Linguistics and Language Research, 1(1), 12-28.
Zarei, A. A., & Elekaei, A. (2012). Learner autonomy and language learning strategies: An empirical analysis. Germany: Lambert Academic Publishing.
Zarei, A. A., & Hatami, G. (2012). On the relationship between self-regulated learning components and L2 vocabulary knowledge and reading comprehension. Theory and Practice in Language Studies, 2 (9), 1939-1944.
Zarei, A. A., & Azin, Z. (2013a). Multiple intelligences as predictors of resource management and motivational self-regulated learning. International Journal of Applied
Linguistic studies (IJALS), 2(2), 48-54.
Zarei, A. A., & Azin, Z. (2013b). Multiple Intelligences as predictors of cognitive and metacognitive self-regulated learning. International Journal of Management and Humanity Sciences, 2(S), 844-853.
Zarei, A. A., & Shahidi Pour, V. (2013a). Language learning strategies as predictors of L2 idioms comprehension. International Journal of Language Learning and applied Linguistics Word (IJLALW), 4(2), 313-330.
Zarei, A. A., & Shahidi Pour, V. (2013b). Language learning strategies as predictors of L2 idioms production. In S. O'Neill, & A. Maleki (Eds.), Advances in TESOL for 21st century practitioners leaders, learners and strategies (pp. 145-156). Brisbane: Adam House Press.
Zarei, A. A., & Baharestani, N. (2014). Language learning strategy use across proficiency levels. i-manager's Journal on English Language Teaching, 4(4), 27-38.
Zarei, A. A., & Gilanian, M. (2014a). On the relationship between cognitive self-regulated learning and language learning strategies. Journal of Social Issues & Humanities, 2(12), 200-209.
Zarei, A. A., & Gilanian, M. (2014b). Language learning strategies as predictors of goal orientation. International Journal of Applied Linguistic Studies (IJALS), 3(1), 8-19.
Zeidner, M. (1998). Test anxiety: The state of the art. New York: Plenum Press.
Zimmerman, B. J. (2000). Attaining self-regulation: A social cognitive perspective. In M. Boekaerts, P.R. Pintrich, & M. Zeidner (Eds.), Handbook of self-regulation (pp. 13-40). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.