Document Type : Research article


Assistant Professor, English Department, Faculty of Foreign Languages and Literature, University of Tehran


Interactive whiteboards (IWBs) have been used in the educational context of Iran since 2009 and formally introduced to the educational context of Iran by the Iranian Ministry of Education in 2011. This study sets out to investigate how Iranian EFL teachers use IWBs in the classroom and what difficulties and challenges they may encounter when they use this technology. To this end, a total of 71 Iranian EFL teachers who taught EFL at secondary schools participated in the study. A questionnaire and interviews were developed as the instruments. The findings revealed the positive views and perspectives of teachers about the use of IWBs, while several curricular, training, pragmatic, and infrastructural obstacles and challenges were also reported. The results also showed that the teachers used IWBs in a limited way and mostly underused them. The IWBs were mainly utilized as a means to connecting to the Internet or showing videos and pictures occasionally. The teachers believed that the IWBs can be employed to teach different language skills and sub-skills. The teachers deemed some measures such as continuous training, the change of the traditional and rigid curricula, and support from educational directors and planners as important and necessary. The study has implications for the proper use of IWBs and the implementation of IWB-based teacher training in EFL instruction in different parts of the world.


Allen, A. (2010). Interactive whiteboard evaluation. Retrieved from
Al-Saleem, B. I. A. (2012). The interactive whiteboard in English as a foreign language (EFL) classroom. European Scientific Journal, 8(3), 126-134.
Alshaikhi, M. H. (2017). Investigating teachers’ attitudes towards the effectiveness of using interactive whiteboards when teaching English as a foreign language. Journal of Modern Education Review, 7(3), 210-219.
Al-Emran, M., Elsherif, H. M., & Shaalan, K. (2016). Investigating attitudes towards the use of mobile learning in higher education. Computers in Human Behavior, 56, 93-102.
Amiri, R., & Sharifi, M. (2014). The influence of using interactive whiteboard on writings of EFL students regarding adverbs. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 98, 242-250.
Ankiewicz, P. (2019). Perceptions and attitudes of pupils towards technology: In search of a rigorous theoretical framework. International Journal of Technology and Design Education, 29(1), 37-56.
Antonietti, A., & Colombo, B. (2008). Computer-supported learning tools: A bi-circular bi-directional framework. New Ideas in Psychology, 26(1), 120-142.
Ayres, R. (2002). Learner attitudes towards the use of CALL. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 15(3), 241-249.
Bakadam, E., & Asiri, M. J. S. (2012). Teachers’ perceptions regarding the benefits of using the interactive whiteboard (IWB): The case of a Saudi intermediate school. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 64, 179-185.
Baz, E. H. (2016). Attitudes of Turkish EFL student teachers towards technology use. Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology - TOJET, 15(2), 1-10.
Beatty, K. (2013). Teaching & researching: Computer-assisted language learning. London, England: Routledge.
Bidaki, M. Z., & Mobasheri, N. (2013). Teachers’ views of the effects of the interactive whiteboard (IWB) on teaching. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 83, 140-144.
Celik, S. (2013). Internet-assisted technologies for English language teaching in Turkish universities. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 26(5), 468-483.
Cole, M. (2009). Using Wiki technology to support student engagement: Lessons from the trenches. Computers & Education, 52(1), 141-146.
Dashtestani, R. (2012). Barriers to the implementation of CALL in EFL courses: Iranian EFL teachers’ attitudes and perspectives. The JALT CALL Journal, 8(2), 55-70.
Dashtestani, R. (2014). Computer literacy of Iranian teachers of English as a foreign language: Challenges and obstacles. International Journal of Pedagogies and Learning, 9(1), 87-100.
Dashtestani, R. (2016). Moving bravely towards mobile learning: Iranian students' use of mobile devices for learning English as a foreign language. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 29(4), 815-832.
Duran, M., Runvand, S., & Fossum, P. R. (2009). Preparing science teachers to teach with technology: Exploring a K-16 networked learning community approach. Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology - TOJET, 8(4), 21-42.
Emeagwali, O. L., & Naghdipour, B. (2013). Exploring the usage and user-perception of interactive Whiteboards in higher education in North Cyprus. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 83, 272-276.
Frantom, C. G., Green, K. E., & Hoffman, E. R. (2002). Measure development: The children's attitudes toward technology scale (CATS). Journal of Educational Computing Research, 26(3), 249-263.
Friedman, A. M., & Hicks, D. (2006). The state of the field: Technology, social studies, and teacher education. Contemporary Issues in Technology and Teacher Education, 6(2), 246-258.
Fuglík, V. (2013). Use of E-portfolios in education. International Journal of Information and Communication Technologies in Education, 2(1), 5-16.
Ghaniabadi, S., Amirian, S. M. R., Khalilabad, M. H., & Nafchi, A. M. (2016). The effect of multimedia texts presented on interactive whiteboards on Iranian high school EFL learners’ reading comprehension performance. International Journal of Humanities and Cultural Studies, 3(1), 430-446.
Heba, E. D., & Nouby, A. (2008). Effectiveness of a blended e-learning cooperative approach in an Egyptian teacher education programme. Computers & Education, 51(3), 988-1006.
Hismanoglu, M., & Hismanoglu, S. (2011). Attitudes of English teacher candidates toward ICT. E-International Journal of Educational Research, 2(2), 17-29.
ISNA. (2013). Smart schools using the first interactive whiteboards in Iran. Retrieved from
Kim, H. K., & Rissel, D. (2008). Instructors' integration of computer technology: Examining the role of interaction. Foreign language annals, 41(1), 61-80.
Korkmaz, O., & Cakil, I. (2013). Teachers’ difficulties about using smart boards. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 83, 595-599.
Kuo, Y. C., Belland, B. R., & Kuo, Y. T. (2017). Learning through blogging: students’ perspectives in collaborative blog-enhanced learning communities. Journal of Educational Technology & Society, 20(2), 37-50.
Lai, C., Shum, M., & Tian, Y. (2016). Enhancing learners’ self-directed use of technology for language learning: the effectiveness of an online training platform. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 29(1), 40-60.
Lopez, O., & Krockover, C. (2014). Contextual factors relevant to elementary teachers using interactive whiteboards in mathematics classroom discourse. Journal of Interactive Learning Research, 25(3), 405-426.
Manfra, M. M., & Hammond, T. C. (2008). Teachers’ instructional choices with student-created digital documentaries: Case studies. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 41(2), 223-245.‏
Manny-Ikan, E., Dagan, O., Tikochinski, T., & Zorman, R. (2011). Using the interactive whiteboard in teaching and learning–an evaluation of the SMART CLASSROOM pilot project. Interdisciplinary Journal of E-Learning and Learning Objects, 7(1), 249-273.
Mathews-Aydinli, J., & Elaziz, F. (2010). Turkish students' and teachers' attitudes toward the use of interactive whiteboards in EFL classrooms. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 23(3), 235-252.
Miller, D., Brown, A., & Robinson, L. (2002). Widgets on the Web using computer-based learning tools. Teaching Exceptional Children, 35(2), 24-28.
Orr, M. (2008). Learner perceptions of interactive whiteboards in EFL classrooms. CALL-EJ Online, 9(2), 9-2.
Proctor, M. D., & Marks, Y. (2013). A survey of exemplar teachers' perceptions, use, and access of computer-based games and technology for classroom instruction. Computers & Education, 62, 171-180.
Rohaan, E. J., Taconis, R., & Jochems, W. M. (2010). Reviewing the relations between teachers’ knowledge and pupils’ attitude in the field of primary technology education. International Journal of Technology and Design Education, 20(1), 15-26.
Shams, N., & Dabaghi, A. (2014). Iranian EFL learners L2 reading comprehension: The Effect of online annotations via interactive whiteboards. Journal of English Language Teaching and Learning, 6(14), 37-56.
Solano, L., Cabrera, P., Ulehlova, E., & Espinoza, V. (2017). Exploring the use of educational technology in EFL teaching: A case study of primary education in the south region of Ecuador. Teaching English with Technology, 17(2), 77-86.
Souhila, B., & Khadidja, M. M. (2013). We need change! The Interactive whiteboard in the EFL context. Academic Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies, 2(3), 379-384.
Stepp-Greany, J. (2002). Student perceptions on language learning in a technological environment: Implications for the new millennium. Language Learning & Technology, 6(1), 165-180.
Tertemiz, N. I., Sahin, D., Can, B., & Duzgun, S. (2015). Views of primary school teachers and students about the interactive whiteboard. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 186, 1289-1297.
Timucin, M. (2009). Diffusion of technological innovation in a foreign languages unit in Turkey: a focus on risk‐aversive teachers. Technology, Pedagogy and Education, 18(1), 75-86.
Vandewaetere, M., & Desmet, P. (2009). Introducing psychometrical validation of questionnaires in CALL research: The case of measuring attitude towards CALL. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 22(4), 349-380.
Weerasinghe, S., & Hindagolla, M. C. B. (2018). Technology acceptance model and social network sites (SNS): A selected review of literature. Global Knowledge, Memory and Communication, 67(3), 142-153.
Wiebe, G., & Kabata, K. (2010). Students' and instructors' attitudes toward the use of CALL in foreign language teaching and learning. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 23(3), 221-234.
Wright, M. D., Washer, B. A., Watkins, L., & Scott, D. G. (2008). Have we made progress? Stakeholder perceptions of technology education in public secondary education in the United States. Journal of Technology Education, 20(1), 78-93.
Yang, J. Y., & Teng, Y. W. (2014). Perceptions of elementary school teachers and students using interactive whiteboards in English teaching and learning. Journal of Interactive Learning Research, 25(1), 125-154.