Ambrose, N. G., & Yairi, E. (1999). Normative disfluency data for early childhood stuttering. Journal of Speech, Language and Hearing Research, 42, 895-909.
Belz, M., Sauer, S., Lüdeling, A. & Mooshammer, C. (2017). Fluently disfluent? Pauses and Repairs of Advanced Learners and Native Speakers of German. International Journal of Learner Corpus Research, 3(2). Special Issue: Segmental, Prosodic and Fluency Features in Phonetic Learner Corpora.
Buhr, A. P., & Zebrowski, P. M. (2009). Sentence Position and Syntactic Complexity of Stuttering in Early Childhood: A Longitudinal Study. Journal of Fluency Disorder, 34(3): 155-172.
Butterworth, B. & Goldman-Eisler, F. (1979). Recent studies in cognitive rhythm. In A. Seigman & S. Feldstein (Eds.). Speech and time: Temporal speech patterns in interpersonal contexts. Hillsdale, N. J.: Lawrence Erlbaum. 211-224. Retrieved from http://www.eric.ed.gov. Eric number: ED184345
Carlo, E. J. & Watson, J. B. (2003). Disfluencies of 3- and 5-year old Spanish-speaking children. Journal of Fluency Disorders 28, 37–53.
Chomsky, N. (1969). The acquisition of syntax in children from five to ten. Cambridge Mass & London: M.I.T Press.
Clark, E. (2009). First language acquisition. 2nd Edition. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge.
Cooper, W. E., & Paccia-Cooper, J. (1980). Syntax and speech. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Culatta, R., & Leeper, L. H. (1990). The differential diagnosis of disfluency. National Student Speech Hearing Association Journal, 17, 59-64. Retrieved from http://www.asha.org
DeJoy, D. A., & Gregory, H. H. (1985). The relationship between age and frequency of disfluency in preschool children. Journal of Fluency Disorders, 10, 107-22.
Dingemanse, M., Torreira, F., & Enfield, N. J. (2013). Is “Huh?” a universal word? Conversational infrastructure and the convergent evolution of linguistic items. PLoS ONE 8(11): e78273. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0078273
Einarsdottir, J., & Ingram, R. J. (2005). Have disfluency-type measures contributed to the understanding and treatment of developmental stuttering? American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 14(4), 260-273.
Ferreira, F. (1988). Planning and timing in sentence production: The syntax-to-phonology conversion (Unpublished dissertation). University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA. Retrieved from http://www.applij.oxfordjournals.org
Fillmore, L. W. (1979). Individual differences in second language acquisition, in Fillmore, C., Kempler, D. and Wang, W. Y. S. (Eds.) Individual Differences in Language Ability and Language Behavior, New York: Academic Press.
Fraundorf, S. H., & Watson, D. G. (2011). The disfluent discourse: Effects of filled pauses on recall. Journal of Memory and Language, 65(2), 161-175. DOI: 10.1016/j.jml.2011.03.004
Freed, B. F. (2000). Is fluency, like beauty, in the eyes (and ears) of the beholder? In H. Riggenbach (Ed.), Perspectives on fluency (pp. 243-265). Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press. Retrieved from http://www.applij.oxfordjournals.org
Glucksberg, S., & Krauss, R. M. (1971). Communication patterns in children. In S. Cohen(Ed.). Child Development. Illinois. F. E. Peacock Publishers Inc.
Goldman-Eisler, F. (1968). Psycholinguistics: Experiments in spontaneous speech. New York: Academic Press.
Gordon, A., & Browne, K. W. (2015). Beginning essentials in early childhood education. USA: Belmont, Wadsworth Cengage Learning.
Guillot, M. N. (1999). Fluency and its teaching. Modern languages in practice. Philadelphia: Multilingual Matters Ltd.
Guitar, B. (2013). Stuttering: An integrated approach to its nature and treatment. Baltimore, MD: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Guitar, B., & Conture, E. G. (Eds.) (2006). The child who stutters: To the pediatrician. Fourth edition, publication 0023. Memphis, TN: Stuttering Foundation of America.
Hares Abadi, F., Pooladi, S., Bakhtiari, B., & Kamali, M. (2010). The effect of syntactic complexity on dysfluency in Persian language children with stuttering and without stuttering in spontaneous speech (Persian). Scientific Journal of Semnan Medical University, 11(3), 178-84.
Harrison, J. C. (2011). A Guide to recovery redefining stuttering what the struggle is really all about. San Francisco: National Stuttering Association.
Haynes, W. O., & Hood, S. B., (1977). Language and disfluency variables in normal speaking children from discrete chronological age groups. Journal of Fluency Disorders, 2, 57- 74.
Henderson, A., Goldman-Eisler, F., & Skarbek, A. (1966). Sequential temporal patterns in spontaneous speech. Language and Speech, 9, 207-216. DOI: 10.1177/002383096600900402
Hoff, E. (2009). Language development. (4th ed.) Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.
Howell, P. (2007). Signs of developmental stuttering up to age eight and at 12 plus. Clinical Psychology Review, 27(3): 287-306. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2006.08.005
Ingram, D. (1989). First language acquisition: Method, description and explanation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Kalashi, M. (2004). Effect of syntactic complexity and length of utterance on speech fluency of children with stuttering and normal children 6-12 years in Tehran city (Persian). MSc. thesis. Tehran: University of Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences.
Kalyan-Masih, V. (1973). Cognitive Egocentricity of the Child Within Piagetian Developmental Theory. Transactions of the Nebraska Academy of Sciences and Affiliated Societies, 379, 35-47. http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/tnas/379
Kehoe, T. D. (2006). No miracle cures: A multifactorial guide to stuttering therapy. USA: University College Press, an imprint of Casa Futura Technologies.
Kidd, E., & Arciuli, J. (2016). Individual differences in statistical learning predict children’s comprehension of syntax. Child Development, 87(1), 184-193. DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12461
Kools, J. A., & Berryman, J. D. (1971). Differences in disfluency behavior between male and female non-stuttering children. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research 14(1), 125–30.
Kowal, S., O’Connell, D. C., & Sabin, E. J. (1975). Development of temporal patterning and vocal hesitations in spontaneous narratives. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research, 4, 195-207.
Kuhl, P. K. (2011). Social mechanisms in early language acquisition: Understanding integrated brain systems supporting language. In: Decety J, Cacioppo J, editors. The handbook of social neuroscience (pp. 649–667). Oxford UK: Oxford University Press.
Kuhl, P. K., Conboy, B. T., Padden, D., Nelson, T., & Pruitt, J. (2005). Early speech perception and later language development: Implications for the “critical period.” Language Learning and Development, 1(3-4), 237-264.
Leclercq, A. L., Suaire, P., & Moyse, A. (2017). Beyond stuttering: Speech disfluencies in normally fluent French-speaking children at age 4. Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics. Aug 24, 1-14. DOI: 10.1080/02699206.2017.1344878.
Lennon, P. (2000). The lexical element in spoken second language fluency. In H. Riggenbach (Ed.), Perspectives on fluency (pp. 25-42). Michigan: The University of Michigan Press. Retrieved from http://www.applij.oxfordjournals.org.
Maloney, E. M., Payne, D. L., & Redford, M. A. (2012). What children’s pause patterns indicate about their constituent structure? Oregon: Cascadilla Press.
Mehrpour, S., & Meihami, H. (2017). An Investigation into the difference in word class and the function of repetition in stuttering Persian speaking children. Journal of Phonetics & Audiology, 3(1), 1-8. DOI: 10.4172/2471-9455.1000125
Menyuk, P. (1967). Syntactic structures in the language of children. In Y. Brackbill & G. G. Thompson (Eds.). Behavior in infancy and early childhood. N. Y: The Free Press.
Menyuk, P. (1969). Sentences children use. Cambridge Mass & London: M.I.T Press.
Ram, A. B., & Savithri, S. R. (2007). Disfluencies in 5.1 to 6-year-old Kannada speaking children. Journal of All India Institute of Speech and Hearing (JAIISH), Disfluencies in children, 26.
Redford, M. A. (2013). A comparative analysis of pausing in child and adult storytelling. Applied Psycholinguist, 34(3), 569-589. DOI: 10.1017/SO142716411000877
Rose, R. (2017). Silent and filled pauses and speech planning in first and second language production. Proceedings of DiSS 2017, 18–19 August 2017, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
Starkweather, C. W. (1987). Fluency and stuttering. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice Hall.
Tavakoli, P. (2011). Pausing patterns: Differences between L2 learners and native speakers. ELT Journal, 65(1), 71-79. DOI: 10.1093/elt/ccq020
Tilsen, S. (2006). Syllable timing in repetition disfluency. UC Berkeley Phonology Lab Annual Report (2006).
Tumanova, V. (2016). Stuttering in preschoolers: Multifactorial perspective on its nature, assessment and treatment. Iowa Conference on Communication Disorders. April 8, 2016.
Tumanova, V., Conture, E. G., Lambert, E. W., & Walden, T. A. (2014). Speech disfluencies of preschool-age children who do and do not stutter. Journal of Communication Disorders, 49, 25-41.
Vahab, M., Zandiyan, A., Falahi, M. H., & Howell, P. (2013). Lexical category influences in Persian children who stutter. Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics, 27(12), 862-873. DOI: 10.3109/02699206.2013.809792
Wagner, M. (2005). Long Distance effects on prosody. Poster presented at the 18th Annual Meeting of the CUNY conference on Human Sentence Processing. Tucson, Arizona.
Walker, J. F., & Archibald, L. M. D. (2006). Articulation rate in preschool children: A 3-year longitudinal study. International Journal of Language and Communication Disorders, 41(5), 541-565.
Watson, D., & Gibson, E. (2004). The relationship between intonational phrasing and syntactic structure in language production. Language and Cognitive Processes,19(6), 713-755. DOI:10.1080/01690960444000070
Wexler, K.B., & Mysak, E.D. (1982). Disfluency characteristics of 2-, 4-, and 6-year-old males. Journal of Disfluency Disorders, 7, 37–446.
Williams, R. N., & Mattson, M. L. (1967). Social influences on the language usage of preschool children. In Y. Brackbill, & G.G. Thompson (Eds.). Behavior in Infancy and Early Childhood. N. Y: The Free Press.
Yairi, E. (1981). Disfluencies of normally speaking two-year-old children. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 24, 490-495. DOI:10.1044/jshr.2404.490
Yairi, E. (1982). Longitudinal studies of disfluencies in two-year-old children. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 25, 155-160. DOI:10.1044/jshr.2501.155
Yairi E., Lewis, B. (1984). Disfluencies at the onset of stuttering. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 27, 154–159.