Document Type : Research article
MA, Department of Foreign Languages, Faculty of Literature and Humanities, Kharazmi University, Iran
Assistant Professor of Applied Linguistics, Department of Foreign Languages, Faculty of Literature and Humanities, Kharazmi University, Tehran., Iran
There are contradicting views about the place of L1 and code-switching (as a common phenomenon) in language classrooms. Despite the plethora of studies investigating classroom code-switching, there is a lack of research comparing trans-languaging practices of university instructors across different contexts particularly in Iranian EFL undergraduate classrooms. The purpose of this study was to examine and compare the actual practices and perceived justifications and functions of code-switching in university level language and content classes. To do so, two groups of Iranian instructors (2 males and 4 females) teaching English major content classes (i.e., Principals of Translation, Translating Journalistic Texts, and Research Methodology) and language courses (i.e., Speaking and Listening, Reading Comprehension, and Writing) were observed, their classes were recorded, and they were interviewed through the stimulated recall technique. The switches’ professed functions were qualitatively analyzed and then were categorized into three broad pedagogical functions (curriculum access, classroom management, and interpersonal relations along with their sub-functions), and, ultimately, they were counted and compared quantitatively. The findings revealed that code-switching was perceived as a goal-directed strategy which was considerably more prevalent (especially intersentential type) in content classes. The findings in this study can make contributions to the work of university instructors, language teachers, and other educational skateholders.The purposeful and fruitful practice of judicious code-switching as a communicative teaching strategy canhelp teachers reduce students’ cognitive and affective burden while improving their comprehension and learning.
- Akbari, R., & Dadvand, B. (2011) Does formal teacher education make a difference? A comparison of pedagogical thought units of BA vs. MA teachers. The Modern Language Journal, 95(1), 44–60. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4781.2010.01142.x
- Akbari, R., Dadvand, B., Samar, R. G., & Kiany, G. R. (2012). Pedagogical knowledge base in ELT: A conceptual framework. TEL (Teaching English Language), 6(2), 49-77. https://doi.org/10.22132/TEL.2012.54901
- Bullock, B. E. (2009). Phonetic reflexes of code-switching. In B. E. Bullock & A. J. Toribio (Eds.), The cambridge handbook of linguistic code-switching (pp. 163-181). Cambridge University Press.
- Bullock, B. E., & Toribio, A. J. (Eds.). (2009). The Cambridge handbook of linguistic code-switching. Cambridge University Press.
- Cantone, K. F. (2007). Code-switching in bilingual children. Springer.
- Cantone, K., & MacSwan, J. (2009). The syntax of DP-internal code switching. In L. Isurin, D. Winford, & K. de Bot (Eds), Multidisciplinary approaches to code switching (pp. 243-278). John Benjamins Publishing.
- Chaudron, C. (1988). Second language classrooms: Research on teaching and learning. Cambridge University Press.
- Dailey-O’Cain, J., & Liebscher, G. (2009). Teacher and student use of the first language in foreign language classroom interaction: Functions and applications. In M. Turnbull & J. Dailey-O’Cain (Eds.), First language use in second and foreign language learning (pp. 131-144). Multilingual Matters.
- Ebrahimzadeh, S. & Talebzadeh, H. (2021, December 7-9). Do teachers align themselves with their students? Convergence, divergence and their social, educational, and contextual correlates in the classroom discourse of Iranian practitioners [Paper presentation]. 18th International TELLSI Conference, Tarbiat Modares University and IAU, Tehran, Iran.
- Ellis, R. (1984). Classroom second language development. Pergamon.
- Evans, M. (2009). Code switching in computer-mediated communication: Linguistic and onterpersonal dimensions of cross- national discourse between school learners of French and English. In M. Turnbull & J. Dailey-O’Cain (Eds.), First language use in second and foreign language learning (pp. 50-65). Multilingual Matters.
- Ferguson, G. (2003). Classroom code-switching in post-colonial contexts: Functions, attitudes and policies. AILA Review, 16(1), 38–51. https://doi.org/10.1075/aila.16.05fer
- Franceschini, R. (1998). Code-switching and the notion of code in linguistics: Proposals for a dual focus model. In P. Auer (Ed.), Code-switching in conversation: Language, interaction and identity (pp. 51-75). Routledge.
- Gafaranga, J. (2009). The conversation analytic model of code-switching. In B. E. Bullock & A. J. Toribio (Eds.), The Cambridge handbook of linguistic code-switching (pp. 114-126). Cambridge University Press.
- Gass, S. M., & Mackey, A. (2016). Stimulated recall methodology in applied linguistics and l2 research. Routledge.
- Gumperz, J. J. (1982). Discourse strategies. Cambridge University Press.Gwee, S., & Saravanan, V. (2016). Use of code switching in multilingual content subject and language classrooms. International Journal of Multilingualism, 15 (2), 1-18.https://doi.org/10.1080/14790718.2016.1181634
- Jouibar, B., Hadian, B., &Vaez, M. (2021). The effect of task difficulty on the quantity and quality of Iranian lower-intermediate EFL learners’ code-switching. Journal of Language Horizons, 5(1), 145-166. https://doi.org.10.22051/lghor.2020.32109.1331
- Levine, G. S. (2014). Principles for code choice in the foreign language classroom: A focus on grammaring. Language Teaching, 47(3), 332-348. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0261444811000498
- Macaro, E. (2005). Code switching in the L2 classroom: A communication and learning strategy. In E. Llurda (Ed.), Nonnative language teachers: Perceptions, challenges, and contributions to the profession (pp. 63-84). Springer
- Macaro, E. (2009). Teacher use of codeswitching in the second language classroom: Exploring ‘optimal’ use. In M. Turnbull & J. Dailey-O’Cain (Eds.), First language use in second and foreign language learning (pp. 35-49). Multilingual Matters.
- McMillan, B. A., & Rivers, D. J. (2011). The practice of policy: Teacher attitudes toward “English only”. System, 39(2), 251-263. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2011.04.011
- McMillan, B., & Turnbull, M. (2009). Teachers’ use of the first language in French immersion: Revisiting a core principle. In M. Turnbull & J. Dailey-O’Cain (Eds.), First language use in second and foreign language learning (pp. 15-34). Multilingual Matters.
- Mokgwathi, T., & Webb, V. (2013). The educational effects of codeswitching in the classroom – benefits and setbacks: A case of selected senior secondary schools in Botswana. Language Matters, 44(3), 108-125 https://doi.org/10.1080/10228195.2013.839734
- Momenian, M. & Samar, R. G. (2011). Functions of code-switching among Iranian advanced and elementary teachers and students. Educational Research and Reviews, 6(13), 769-777. http://www.academicjournals.org/ERR
- Muysken, P. (2000). Bilingual speech: A typology of code-mixing. Cambridge University Press.
- Myers-Scotton, C., & Jake, J. (2009). A universal model of code-switching and bilingual language processing and production. In B. E. Bullock & A. J. Toribio. (Eds.), The Cambridge handbook of linguistic code-switching (pp. 336-357). Cambridge University Press.
- Nagy, K., & Robertson, D. (2009). Target language use in English classes in Hungarian primary schools. In M. Turnbull & J. Dailey-O’Cain (Eds.), First language use in second and foreign language learning (pp. 66-86). Multilingual Matters.
- Nazeri, S., Amini, D., & Salahshoor, F. (2020). Motivational determinants of code-switching in Iranian EFL classrooms. The Journal of Applied Linguistics and Applied Literature: Dynamics and Advances, 8(1), 151-173. https://doi.org./10.22049/JALDA.2020.26812.1171
- Poplack, S. (1980). Sometimes I’ll start a sentence in Spanish y termino en español: Toward a typology of code-switching. In L. Wei (Ed.), The bilingualism reader (pp. 205-240). Routledge.
- Rahimi, A. & Eftekhari, M. (2011). Psycholinguistic code switching in Iranian university classroom context. The Journal of Language Teaching and Learning, 1(1), 54‐63. https://jltl.com.tr/index.php/jltl/article/view/81
- Rivers, D. J. (2011). Politics without pedagogy: Questioning linguistic exclusion. ELT Journal, 65(2), 103-113. https://doi.org/10.1093/elt/ccq044
- Sali, P. (2014). An analysis of the teachers’ use of L1 in Turkish EFL classrooms. System, 42, 308- 318. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2013.12.021
- Samar, R. G., & Moradkhani, S. (2014). Code switching in the language classroom: A study of four EFL teachers’ cognition. RELC Journal, 45 (2), 151-164. https://doi.org/10.1177/0033688214534796
- Shabani, G., Asadi Jamani, R., & Mashhadi Heidar, D. (2016). A study of Iranian EFL university lecturers’ practice of code switching in English as foreign language instruction. Journal of Studies in Education, 6(2), 95-118. https://doi.org/10.5296/jse.v6i2.9247
- Stern, H. H. (1992). Issues and options in language teaching. Oxford University Press.
- Terry, J. M., Hendrick, R., Evangelou, E., & Smith, R. L. (2010). Variable dialect switching among African American children: Inferences about working memory. Lingua, 120, 2463-2475. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lingua.2010.04.013
- Turnbull, M., & Arnett, K. (2002). Teachers’ uses of the target and first languages in second and foreign language classrooms. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 22, 204-218. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0267190502000119
- Turnbull, M., & Dailey-O’Cain, J. (Eds.). (2009). First language use in second and foreign language learning. Multilingual Matters.
- Willans, F. (2011). Classroom code-switching in a Vanuatu secondary school: Conflict between policy and practice. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 14(1), 23-38. https://doi.org/10.1080/13670050903576038
- Winford, D. (2009). On the unity of contact phenomena and their underlying mechanisms: The case of borrowing. In L. Isurin, & D. Winford, & K. D. Bot (Eds.), Multidisciplinary approaches to code switching (pp. 279-306). John Benjamins.
- Wong-Fillmore, L. (1985). When does teacher talk work as input? In S.M. Gass & C.G. Madden (Eds.), Input in second language acquisition (pp. 17-50). Newbury.