Document Type : Research article
PhD Candidate, Department of English, Tabriz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz, Iran
Assistant Professor, Department of English, Tabriz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz, Iran
Associate Professor, Department of English, Tabriz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz, Iran
Learner-centered approaches in second language acquisition and process approach in writing pedagogy has stimulated quite a number of researchers to focus on learners' voices in collaboration passing through multiple drafts and revisions. This study based on the concept of scaffolding learning in Vygotsky's sociocultural theory and process writing approach to second language writing investigated Iranian EFL learners’ negotiation types in small groups of different scaffolding patterns; symmetrical and asymmetrical. To this end, 15 students at High and Low Intermediate Proficiency levels were assigned into three groups in different scaffolding patterns; one asymmetrical group with two High Intermediate - three Low Intermediate learners (H-L), two symmetrical groups with five High Intermediate learners (H-H), another with five Low Intermediate learners (L-L). Small group interactions were observed and recorded. Transcriptions were analyzed to identify negotiation types in terms of language functions among different groups. Therefore, two main categories, Responding and Requesting and their subcategories were found. The subcategories of ''agreeing'', ''explaining'', ''giving opinions'', ''instructing'', ''restating'' and'' suggesting'' were related to the first main category; ''comprehension checking'', ''eliciting opinions'' and ''questioning ''were related to the second main category. According to Chi-square test results, negotiation types were significantly related to the scaffolding pattern as the asymmetrical (H-L) group was superior in the number of language functions used over the symmetrical (L-L, H-H) groups. Nevertheless, members in all groups enjoyed high equality and mutuality in interaction. The findings suggest teachers raise learners' awareness of the diverse strengths and abilities that different scaffolding patterns give them.
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