Document Type : Research article


1 English Department, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran

2 Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch

3 English Department, Garmsar Branch, Islamic Azad University, Garmsar, Iran


Over recent decades, second language acquisition (SLA) researchers have considered attention an important cognitive process mediating second language (L2) learning. The concept of noticing as conscious attention to form has become especially important in the field. The present study explored whether two pedagogical interventions, namely textual input enhancement (TIE) and learners´ output production (LOP), in isolation and in combination, promoted learners’ noticing and learning of English relative clauses (RC). The study was conducted with a sample of 113 freshmen majoring in English language and literature. The participants were assigned to three experimental groups and the control group based on the treatments they received, +TIE+LOP, +TIE-LOP, -TIE+LOP, and -TIE-LOP. Before treatment, all the participants took a test of English RCs as the pretest. Then, the participants were required to read the reading texts including instances of RCs and take note. While the participants in the +TIE groups read the enhanced input, the participants in the -TIE groups received the unenhanced input. Also, the participants in the +LOP groups were required to carry out output tasks, but the participants in the -LOP groups answered comprehension questions. Consequently, the participants took part in think-aloud processes. Finally, the test of RCs was administered again as the posttest. The findings revealed that LOP positively affected the participants’ noticing and learning of RCs. However, TIE was only effective in promoting the participants’ noticing, but not learning, of RCs.