Document Type : Research article


1 MA Student, Department of English Language Teaching, Gorgan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Gorgan, Iran

2 Assistant Professor, Department of English Language and Literature, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, Golestan University, Gorgan, Iran

3 BA Student, Department of English Language Teaching, Golestan University, Gorgan, Iran


Although extensive research has been conducted on successful technology integration, encompassing the readily available technology, providing a techno-based environment, and applying high-level technology in the classroom still seem to be very much in the minority. Moreover, technology integration illustrates additional barriers, including teachers’ and students’ technology-based knowledge and schools’ financial problems. In contrast to earlier findings in English as a Foreign Language (EFL) contexts, however, little evidence seems to be available about Iranian teachers' classroom uses of the technology. Therefore, this paper aims to present the Iranian teacher's conceptual pedagogical perception of technology integration and illuminate how technology integration impacts teachers' classroom practice. To this end, 10 Iranian EFL teachers in private and public schools in Golestan Province were interviewed. The qualitative data of the interviews were recorded in English and transcribed; they were then coded and analyzed by employing thematic analysis (Braun & Clarke, 2006) via NVivo 12 computer software to show the dimensions and components of the conceptual model of technology integration. One of the themes extracted from the thematic analysis of the Iranian teachers’ perceptions was the lack of technological knowledge. That is, a limited understanding of teachers about using technology in their teaching was viewed as a significant problem. Another theme referred to the limited use of technology which makes teachers use computers as a supplementary tool. In addition, it was found that the educational context does not create need-based technology conditions for them, leading to the teachers' ineffective use of technology.


Appendix A

Kim (2008). Beyond Motivation: EFL-ESL Teachers' Perceptions of the Role of Computers

Cleveland State University

General Information

  1. Would you tell me about your computer skills? Could you name the computer software programs that you can use?
  2. Have you taken any courses related to computers? If any, what are the names of the courses?

Experience of Teaching

  1. Would you tell about your ESL/EFL teaching experience briefly?

Experience of Using Computers

  1. Have you used computers in your teaching? How did you use computers in your teaching, if you have?

Using Computers in Language Teaching

  1. What do you think of the roles of computers in language teaching?
  2. What are the benefits of using computers in language teaching?
  3. Are you planning to use computers in your teaching in the future? If yes, how are you going to use computers in your classroom?
  4. Can you give me some examples of how you are going to use computers in your teaching?

Teacher Beliefs

  1. Do you think technology-enhanced learning can better prepare students for 21st century? Explain your viewpoint?
  2. What is motivating you to use technology the amount you do?
  3. What is motivating you to use the math software the amount you do?

Teacher Perception

  1. Do you know how much usage the product provider recommends? How much do you think the product should be used per week?
  2. How much professional development did you receive related to this software?
  3. How are you using the software?
  4. How do you know when to use the software?

Instructional Strategies

  1. What are some ways you have helped students view technology as a learning tool?
  2. How do you incorporate technology into your instruction?
  3. What did you do to incorporate software into your instruction?
  4. What are some ways that you have been able to use technology to enhance student learning?
  5. Do you encourage collaboration and creative thinking? If so how?

Motivation Strategies

  1. How are students using the software?
  2. How often do you check student progress?
  3. Do students use this software at home?
  4. What strategies do you use to motivate and encourage students?
  5. What strategies do you use to keep students engaged?

Change Management

  1. In your school or classroom, what strategies were used to manage this change to your instruction?
  2. What instructional or management strategies do you use to integrate technology in your classroom?

Iranian teachers

  1. What barriers do Iranian Teachers face up with using computers?
  2. How do Iranian teachers relate course and material to computer?
  3. What strategies do Iranian teachers use to homogenize the level of computers' knowledge of students?
  4. Which skill is greatly promoted through computers?
  5. Do Iranian teachers use the computer in their teaching as an important course or as supplementary material?
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