Document Type : Research article
1 Ph.D. Candidate, English Department, Faculty of Humanities, Ahar Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ahar, Iran
2 Assistant Professor, English Department, Faculty of Humanities, Ahar Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ahar, Iran
3 Assistant Professor, English Department, Faculty of Humanities, Ahar Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ahar, Iran.
While previous academic achievement studies have investigated a wide range of cognitive variables, certain non-cognitive variables such as teacher-student interaction and academic self-concept in relation to academic success have remained under-researched. To this end, a coefficient correlation research method was used to observe the academic self-concept, and the interaction between teacher and student features which had been identified as having significant roles in English students’ academic achievement. The participants of the study consisted of 218 Iranian EFL university learners, with an age range of 18 to 45. Structural equation modeling hypothesis-testing procedures demonstrated that there exists a reasonable fitness between the data and the model (χ2 = 0.37, GFI = 0.99, CFI = 0.99, RMSEA = 0.01). It was confirmed that the amount of student and teacher relationships meaningfully and directly affected EFL students' academic success (r = 0.35, p = 0.45). Moreover, academic self-concept was known to be a significant factor in improving students' achievement (r = 0.24, p = 0.32). The obtained results also indicated the mediating role of learners' academic self-concept in enhancing learners' academic achievement via increasing the interaction between students and their teacher. The fundamental role of psychosomatic features, comprising of students and teacher relations and academic self-concept to foreign language students’ educational success was authenticated. The outcomes of this empirical study have some implications for educational settings.
- Abrantes, J. L., Seabra, C., & Lages, L. F. (2007). Pedagogical affect, student interest, and learning performance. Journal of Business Research, 60(9), 960-964. https://doi/org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2006.10.026
- Ahmed, W., & Bruinsma, M. (2006). A structural model of self-concept, autonomous motivation and academic performance in cross-cultural perspective. Electronic Journal of Research in Educational Psychology,4(3),551-576. http://dx.doi.org/10.25115/ejrep.v4i10.1214
- Ahnert, L., Harwardt-Heinecke, E., Kappler, G., Eckstein-Madry, T., & Milatz, A. (2012). Student–teacher relationships and classroom climate in first grade: How do they relate to students’ stress regulation? Attachment & human development, 14(3), 249-263. https://doi/org/10.1080/14616734.2012.673277
- Arbeau, K. A., Coplan, R. J., & Weeks, M. (2010). Shyness, teacher-child relationships, and socio-emotional adjustment in grade 1. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 34(3), 259-269. https://doi.org/10.1177/0165025409350959
- Bakadorova, O., & Raufelder, D. (2016). Do socio-motivational relationships predict achievement motivation in adolescents with high and low school self-concepts? The Journal of Educational Research, 109(3), 219-231. https://doi.org/10.1080/00220671.2014.942031
- Belsky, J., & Pluess, M. (2009). The nature (and nurture?) of plasticity in early human development. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 4(4), 345-351. https://doi/org/10.1111/j.1745-6924.2009.01136.x
- Bentler, P. M., & Bonett, D. G. (1980). Significance tests and goodness of fit in the analysis of covariance structures. Psychological bulletin, 88(3), 588-604. https://doi/org/10.1037/0033-2909.88.3.588
- Berg, G. V. D, & Coetzee, L. R. (2014). Academic self-concept and motivation as predictors of academic achievement. International Journal of Educational Sciences, 6(3), 469-478. https://doi.org/10.1080/09751122.2014.11890158
- Brown, K. W. & Ryan, R. M. (2015). A self-determination theory perspective on fostering healthy self-regulation from within and without. In S. Joseph (Ed.), Positive psychology in practice, (pp.139-157). https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118996874.ch9
- Cadima, J., Leal, T., & Burchinal, M. (2010). The quality of teacher-student interactions: Associations with first graders' academic and behavioral outcomes. Journal of School Psychology, 48(6), 457-482. https://doi/org/10.1016/j.jsp.2010.09.001
- Craven, R. (2008). The centrality of the self-concept construct for psychological wellbeing and unlocking human potential: Implicat. Educ. Child Psychol, 25, 104-118. https://d1wqtxts1xzle7.cloudfront.net/3624037/cravenmarsh-libre.pdf
- Chen, S. K., Yeh, Y.C., H, F.-M., & Lin, S. S. (2013). The relationship between academic self-concept and achievement: A multicohort-multioccasion study. Learning and Individual Differences, 23, 172-178. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lindif.2012.07.021
- Clem, A. L., Rudasill, K. M., Hirvonen, R., Aunola, K., & Kiuru, N. (2020). The roles of teacher-student relationship quality and self-concept of ability in adolescents’ achievement emotions: Temperament as a moderator. European Journal of Psychology of Education, 36, 263-286. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10212-020-00473-6
- Craven, R. G., & Marsh, H. W. (2008). The centrality of the self-concept construct for psychological wellbeing and unlocking human potential: Implications for child and educational psychologists. Educational and Child Psychology, 25(2), 104-118.
- Creswell, J. W. (2008). The selection of a research design. Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed method approaches (4th ed). SAGE Publications.
- Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (1985). The general causality orientations scale: Self-determination in personality. Journal of research in personality, 19(2), 109-134. https://doi.org/10.1016/0092-6566(85)90023-6
- den Brok, P., Brekelmans, M., Levy, J., & Wubbels, T. (2002). Diagnosing and improving the quality of teachers’ interpersonal behaviour. International Journal of Educational Management, 16(4), 176-184. https://doi/org/10.1108/09513540210432155
- Díaz, E. R., Fernández, A. R., Zabala, A. F., Revuelta, L. R., & Rey-Baltar, A. Z. (2016). Apoyo social percibido, autoconcepto e implicación escolar de estudiantes adolescentes. Revista de Psicodidáctica, 21(2), 339-356. https://doi/org /10.1387/RevPsicodidact.14848
- Eccles, J. S., & Wigfield, A. (1995). In the mind of the actor: The structure of adolescents' achievement task values and expectancy-related beliefs. Personality and social psychology bulletin, 21(3), 215-225. https://doi.org/10.1177/0146167295213003
- Elmelid, A., Stickley, A., Lindblad, F., Schwab-Stone, M., Henrich, C. C., & Ruchkin, V. (2015). Depressive symptoms, anxiety and academic motivation in youth: Do schools and families make a difference? Journal of Adolescence, 45(2), 174-182. https://doi/org /10.1016/j.adolescence.2015.08.003
- Finney, S.J. & DiStefano, C. (2006). Non-normal and Categorical data in
structural equation modeling. In G. R. Hancock & R. O. Mueller (Eds.), Structural equation modeling: A second course, (pp. 269-314).
Information Age Publishing.
- Frenzel, A. C., Pekrun, R., & Goetz, T. (2007). Perceived learning environment and students' emotional experiences: A multilevel analysis of mathematics classrooms. Learning and Instruction, 17(5), 478-493. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.learninstruc.2007.09.001
- Ganley, C. M., & Lubienski, S. T. (2016). Mathematics confidence, interest, and performance: Examining gender patterns and reciprocal relations. Learning and Individual Differences, 47(2), 82-193. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lindif.2016.01.002
- Garn, A., & Shen, B. (2015). Physical self-concept and basic psychological needs in exercise: Are there reciprocal effects? International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 13(2), 169-181. https://doi.org/10.1080/1612197X.2014.940994
- Goetz, T., Lüdtke, O., Nett, U. E., Keller, M. M., & Lipnevich, A. A. (2013). Characteristics of teaching and students’ emotions in the classroom: Investigating differences across domains. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 38(4), 383-394. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cedpsych.2013.08.001
- Goetz, T., Nett, U. E., Martiny, S. E., Hall, N. C., Pekrun, R., Dettmers, S., & Trautwein, U. (2012). Students' emotions during homework: Structures, self-concept antecedents, and achievement outcomes. Learning and Individual Differences, 22(2), 225-234. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lindif.2011.04.006
- Gogol, K., Brunner, M., Martin, R., Preckel, F., & Goetz, T. (2017). Affect and motivation within and between school subjects: Development and validation of an integrative structural model of academic self-concept, interest, and anxiety. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 49(3), 46-65. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cedpsych.2016.11.003
- Green, J., Liem, G. A. D., Martin, A. J., Colmar, S., Marsh, H. W., & McInerney, D. (2012). Academic motivation, self-concept, engagement, and performance in high school: Key processes from a longitudinal perspective. Journal of Adolescence, 35(5), 1111-1122. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.adolescence.2012.02.016
- Greenwald, A. G., Banaji, M. R., Rudman, L. A., Farnham, S. D., Nosek, B. A., & Mellott, D. S. (2002). A unified theory of implicit attitudes, stereotypes, self-esteem, and self-concept. Psychological Review, 109(1), 3-25. https://doi/org /10.1037/0033-295x.109.1.3
- Grygiel, P., Modzelewski, M., & Pisarek, J. (2017). Academic self-concept and achievement in Polish primary schools: Cross-lagged modelling and gender-specific effects. European Journal of Psychology of Education, 32(3), 407-429. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10212-016-0300-2
- Gujare, S. K., & Tiwari, G. K. (2016). Academic self-concept and academic outcome of the graduate students: The mediating role of socioeconomic status and gender. International Journal of Education and Psychological Research, 4(5), 1-7. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/310461860
- Guo, J., Marsh, H. W., Parker, P. D., & Dicke, T. (2018). Cross-cultural generalizability of social and dimensional comparison effects on reading, math, and science self-concepts for primary school students using the combined PIRLS and TIMSS data. Learning and Instruction, 58(2), 210-219. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.learninstruc.2018.07.007
- Gutiérrez, M., Tomás, J.-M., Romero, I., & Barrica, J.-M. (2017). Perceived social support, school engagement and satisfaction with school. Revista de Psicodidáctica (English ed.), 22(2), 111-117. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psicoe.2017.05.001
- Harter, S. (2012). The construction of the self: Developmental and socio-cultural foundations. Guilford Press.
- Hay, A., Hodgkinson, M., Peltier, J. W., & Drago, W. A. (2004). Interaction and virtual learning. Strategic change, 13(4), 193-204. https://doi.org/10.1002/jsc.679
- Hoferichter, F., Lätsch, A., Lazarides, R., & Raufelder, D. (2018). The big-fish-little-pond effect on the four facets of academic self-concept. Frontiers in Psychology, 9(2), 1247-1256. https://doi/org /10.3389/fpsyg.2018.01247
- Howes, C., Guerra, A. W., Fuligni, A., Zucker, E., Lee, L., Obregon, N. B., & Spivak, A. (2011). Classroom dimensions predict early peer interaction when children are diverse in ethnicity, race, and home language. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 26(4), 399-408. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecresq.2011.02.004
- Hu, L. T., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 6(1), 1-55. https://doi.org/10.1080/10705519909540118
- Jellesma, F. C., Zee, M., & Koomen, H. M. (2015). Children's perceptions of the relationship with the teacher: Associations with appraisals and internalizing problems in middle childhood. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 36(3), 30-38. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.appdev.2014.09.002
- Joe, A. I., Kpolovie, P. J., Osonwa, K. E., & Iderima, C. E. (2014). Modes of admission and academic performance in Nigerian Universities. Merit Research Journal of Education and Review, 2(9), 203-230. http://www.meritresearchjournals.org/er/index.htm
- Kenny, M. C., & Adriana, M. (2009). Children's self-concept: A multicultural comparison. Professional School Counseling, 12(3). https://doi.org/10.1177/2156759X0901200306
- Khalaila, R. (2015). The relationship between academic self-concept, intrinsic motivation, test anxiety, and academic achievement among nursing students: Mediating and moderating effects. Nurse Education Today, 35(3), 432-438.https://doi/org /10.1016/j.nedt.2014.11.001
- Kiuru, N., Spinath, B., Clem, A. L., Eklund, K., Ahonen, T., & Hirvonen, R. (2020). The dynamics of motivation, emotion, and task performance in simulated achievement situations. Learning and Individual Differences, 80(2),73-86. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lindif.2020.101873
- Köller, O., Trautwein, U., Lüdtke, O., & Baumert, J. (2006). Zum Zusammenspiel von schulischer Leistung, Selbstkonzept und Interesse in der gymnasialen Oberstufe [On the interplay of academic achievement, self-concept, and interest in upper secondary schools]. Eitschrift für Pädagogische Psychologie, 20(1/2), 27-39. https://doi.org/10.1024/1010-06220.127.116.11.
- Košir, K., & Tement, S. (2014). Teacher-student relationship and academic achievement: A cross-lagged longitudinal study on three different age groups. European Journal of Psychology of Education, 29(3), 409-428. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10212-013-0205-2
- Kraft, M. A., & Rogers, T. (2015). The underutilized potential of teacher-to-parent communication: Evidence from a field experiment. Economics of Education Review, 47(3), 49-63. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.econedurev.2015.04.001
- Kulakow, S. (2020). Academic self-concept and achievement motivation among adolescent students in different learning environments: Does competence-support matter? Learning and Motivation, 70(1), 101-112. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lmot.2020.101632
- Kyriakides, L. (2005). Extending the comprehensive model of educational effectiveness by an empirical investigation. School Effectiveness and School Improvement, 16(2), 103-152. https://doi.org/10.1080/09243450500113936
- Lei, H., Cui, Y., & Chiu, M. M. (2018). The relationship between teacher support and students' academic emotions: A meta-analysis. Frontiers in Psychology, 8(2), 22-88. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2017.02288
- Liu, W. C., & Wang, C. K. J. (2005). Academic self-concept: A cross-sectional study of grade and gender differences in a Singapore secondary school. Asia Pacific Education Review, 6(1), 20-27.
- LoCasale-Crouch, J., Jamil, F., Pianta, R. C., Rudasill, K. M., & DeCoster, J. (2018). Observed quality and consistency of fifth graders’ teacher–student interactions: Associations with feelings, engagement, and performance in school. Sage Open, 8(3), 1-11. https://doi.org/10.1177/2158244018794774
- Marsh, H. W., Abduljabbar, A. S., Parker, P. D., Morin, A. J., Abdelfattah, F., Nagengast, B., Möller , J., & Abu-Hilal, M. M. (2015). The internal/external frame of reference model of self-concept and achievement relations: Age-cohort and cross-cultural differences. American Educational Research Journal, 52(1), 168-202. https://doi.org/10.3102/0002831214549453
- Marsh, H. W., Hau, K.-T., Balla, J. R., & Grayson, D. (1998). Is more ever too much? The number of indicators per factor in confirmatory factor analysis. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 33(2), 181-220. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327906mbr3302_1
- Marsh, H. W., & Martin, A. J. (2011). Academic self‐concept and academic achievement: Relations and causal ordering. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 81(1), 59-77. https://doi/org /10.1348/000709910X503501
- Marsh, H. W., Martin, A. J., Yeung, A. S., & Craven, R. G. (2017). Competence self-perceptions. In A. J. Elliot, C. S. Dweck, & D. S. Yeager (Eds.), Handbook of competence and motivation: Theory and application, (pp. 85-115). The Guilford Press.
- McFarland, L., Murray, E., & Phillipson, S. (2016). Student-teacher relationships and student self-concept: Relations with teacher and student gender. Australian Journal of Education, 60(1), 5-25. https://doi.org/10.1177/0004944115626426
- Niepel, C., Brunner, M., & Preckel, F. (2014). The longitudinal interplay of students’ academic self-concepts and achievements within and across domains: Replicating and extending the reciprocal internal/external frame of reference model. Journal of Educational Psychology, 106(4), 1170-1191. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0036307
- Pakarinen, E., Silinskas, G., Hamre, B. K., Metsäpelto, R. L., Lerkkanen, M. K., Poikkeus, A. M., & Nurmi, J. E. (2018). Cross-lagged associations between problem behaviors and teacher-student relationships in early adolescence. The Journal of Early Adolescence, 38(8), 1100-1141. https://doi.org/10.1177/0272431617714328
- Parker, P. D., Marsh, H. W., Morin, A. J., Seaton, M., & Van Zanden, B. (2015). If one goes up the other must come down: Examining ipsative relationships between math and English self‐concept trajectories across high school. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 85(2), 172-191. https://doi/org /10.1111/bjep.12050
- Pekrun, R. (2006). The control-value theory of achievement emotions: Assumptions, corollaries, and implications for educational research and practice. Educational Psychology Review, 18(4), 315-341. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10648-006-9029-9
- Pekrun, R., & Perry, R. P. (2014). Control-value theory of achievement emotions. In R. Pekrun & L. Linnenbrink-Garcia (Eds.), International handbook of emotions in education (pp. 120-141). Routledge/Taylor & Francis Group.
- Pino-Pasternak, D., Whitebread, D., & Tolmie, A. (2010). A multidimensional analysis of parent-child interactions during academic tasks and their relationships with children's self-regulated learning. Cognition and Instruction, 28(3), 219-272. https://doi.org/10.1080/07370008.2010.490494
- Pinxten, M., De Fraine, B., Van Damme, J., & D'Haenens, E. (2013). Student achievement and academic self-concept among secondary students in Flanders: Gender and changes over time. Irish Educational Studies, 32(2), 157-178. https://doi/org/10.1080/03323315.2012.749058
- Pinxten, M., Marsh, H. W., De Fraine, B., Van Den Noortgate, W., & Van Damme, J. (2014). Enjoying mathematics or feeling competent in mathematics? Reciprocal effects on mathematics achievement and perceived math effort expenditure. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 84(1), 152-174. https://doi.org/10.1111/bjep.12028
- Pitt, V., Powis, D., Levett-Jones, T., & Hunter, S. (2012). Factors influencing nursing students' academic and clinical performance and attrition: An integrative literature review. Nurse Education Today, 32(8), 903-913. https://doi/org /10.1016/j.nedt.2012.04.011
- Pitt, V., Powis, D., Levett-Jones, T., & Hunter, S. (2014). Nursing students' personal qualities: A descriptive study. Nurse Education Today, 34(9), 1196-1200. https://doi/org / 10.1016/j.nedt.2014.05.004
- Raccanello, D., & De Bernardi, B. (2013). A research study on the relationships between student achievement goals, perception of contextual achievement goals and academic performance in Italian and Mathematics. BPA-Applied Psychology Bulletin (Bollettino di Psicologia Applicata), 61(2), 268-281. http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12424/2408110
- Rady, H., Kabeer, S., & El-Nady, M. T. (2016). Relationship between academic self concept and students’ performance among school age children. American Journal of Nursing Science, 5(6), 295-302. https://doi/org /10.11648/j.ajns.20160506.19
- Sabol, T. J., & Pianta, R. C. (2012). Recent trends in research on teacher-child relationships. Attachment & human development, 14(3), 213-231. https://doi/org/10.1080/14616734.2012.672262
- Sakiz, G. (2012). Perceived instructor affective support in relation to academic emotions and motivation in college. Educational Psychology, 32(1), 63-79.
- https://doi/org /10.1080/01443410.2011.625611
- Schiefele, U., & Schaffner, E. (2015). Teacher interests, mastery goals, and self-efficacy as predictors of instructional practices and student motivation. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 42(3), 159-171. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cedpsych.2015.06.005
- Schneider, M., & Preckel, F. (2017). Variables associated with achievement in higher education: A systematic review of meta-analyses. Psychological bulletin, 143(6), 565-600. https://doi/org /10.1037/bul0000098
- Schumacker, R. E., & Lomax, R. G. (2010). A beginner’s guide to structural equation modeling (3rd Ed.). Taylor & Francis Group.
- Simonsmeier, B. A., Peiffer, H., Flaig, M., & Schneider, M. (2020). Peer feedback improves students’ academic aelf-concept in higher education. Research in Higher Education, 61(2), 706-724. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11162-020-09591-y
- Skinner, E., Pitzer, J., & Brule, H. (2014). The role of emotion in engagement, coping, and the development of motivational resilience. In R. Pekrun & L. Linnenbrink-Garcia (Eds.) International handbookf emotions in education, (1st ed.), (pp. 331-347). Routledge Publication.
- Trautwein, U., & Möller, J. (2016). Self-concept: Determinants and consequences of academic self-concept in school contexts. In A. A. Lipnevich, F. Preckel, & R. D. Roberts (Eds.), Psychosocial skills and school systems in the 21st century: Theory, research, and practice, (pp. 187-214). Springer International Publishing AG. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-28606-8_8
- Veas, A., Castejón, J.-L., Miñano, P., & Gilar-Corbí, R. (2019). Actitudes en la adolescencia inicial y rendimiento académico: El rol mediacional del autoconcepto académico [Early adolescents’ attitudes and academic achievement: The mediating role of academic self-concept]. Revista de Psicodidáctica, 24(1), 71-77. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psicod.2018.11.001
- Verschueren, K. (2015). Middle childhood teacher-child relationships: Insights from an attachment perspective and remaining challenges. New directions for child and adolescent development, 148(2), 77-91. https://doi/org /10.1002/cad.20097. PMID: 26086129
- Verschueren, K., Doumen, S., & Buyse, E. (2012). Relationships with mother, teacher, and peers: Unique and joint effects on young children's self-concept. Attachment & human development, 14(3), 233-248. https://doi.org/10.1080/14616734.2012.672263
- Verschueren, K., & Koomen, H. M. (2012). Teacher-child relationships from an attachment perspective. Attachment & human development, 14(3), 205-211. https://doi/org /10.1080/14616734.2012.672260
- Vervoort, E., Doumen, S., & Verschueren, K. (2015). Children's appraisal of their relationship with the teacher: Preliminary evidence for construct validity. European Journal of Developmental Psychology, 12(2), 243-260. https://doi.org/10.1080/17405629.2014.989984
- Westphal, A., Kretschmann, J., Gronostaj, A., & Vock, M. (2018). More enjoyment, less anxiety and boredom: How achievement emotions relate to academic self-concept and teachers' diagnostic skills. Learning and Individual Differences, 62(1), 108-117. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lindif.2018.01.016
- Wolff, F., Nagy, N., Helm, F., & Möller, J. (2018). Testing the internal/external frame of reference model of academic achievement and academic self-concept with open self-concept reports. Learning and Instruction, 55(3), 58-66. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.learninstruc.2017.09.006
- Wubbels, T., & Brekelmans, M. (2005). Two decades of research on teacher-student relationships in class. International Journal of Educational Research, 43(1-2), 6-24. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijer.2006.03.003
- Wubbels, T., & Levy, J. (1993). Do you know what you look like? Interpersonal relationships in education. Falmer Press/Taylor & Francis, Inc.