Document Type : Research article


1 Associate Professor, Department of English Language and Literature Faculty of Persian Literature and Foreign Languages, Allameh Tabataba’i University, Tehran, Iran

2 PhD in TEFL, Department of English Language and Literature Faculty of Persian Literature and Foreign Languages, Allameh Tabataba’i University, Tehran, Iran


Batelaan (2001) posits that a teacher-student respectful inter-relationship is conducive to a safe learning context. This study presents a multi-faceted scale that cross-culturally measures teachers’ (dis)respect for learners as a crucial dimension of teacher-student relationships. The teachers’ respect for learners questionnaire (TRLQ) is premised upon literature review, focus groups and online interviews. We examined the dimensionality of the TRLQ via Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) to seek confirmation for our hypothesized six-factor model among native and non-native English language teachers and learners (N = 472). The six-factor structure was obtained through Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) of the TRLQ, which was developed based upon three overarching categories consisting of 14 minor themes gained from focus groups and online interviews. Hinged upon these analyses, the six-factor structure strongly indicated the best fit. These dimensions include a) teachers’ interpersonal characteristics, b) teachers’ insightfulness, and c) teachers’ occupational attributes. Reliability coefficients revealed that the internal consistency of the six factors was excellent. Further, we tested the convergent, divergent, and predictive validity of the TRLQ. Teachers’ (dis)respect for learners appeared to predict learners’ academic achievement, particularly their GPA and self-assessed success in learning English. The results lend support to the six dimensions derived from EFA and focus groups and online interviews and offer concrete proof of the psychometric properties of our scale. This scale can be used by educators and policy makers to oversee teacher-student respectful relationships.


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